Defintions and Explanations
About Holistic Therapies
And some influential Psychologists

You will also find below a list of different forms of Alternative Medicine
Thanks to his 20+ years of experience, our Trainer has received many of these Teachings and Methods
and will be able to share them with you...

Holism is the interdisciplinary idea that systems possess properties as wholes apart from the properties of their component parts.[1][2][3] The concept of holism informs the methodology for a broad array of scientific fields and lifestyle practices. When applications of holism are said to reveal properties of a whole system beyond those of its parts, these qualities are referred to as emergent properties of that system. Holism in all contexts is opposed to reductionism which is the notion that systems containing parts contain no unique properties beyond those parts. Scientific proponents of holism consider the search for these emergent properties within systems the primary reason to incorporate it into scientific assumptions or perspectives.[4]

Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an American psychologist who was one of the founders of humanistic psychology and was known especially for his person-centered psychotherapy. Rogers is widely considered one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research and was honored for his pioneering research with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1956.

The person-centered approach, Rogers's unique approach to understanding personality and human relationships, found wide application in various domains, such as psychotherapy and counseling (client-centered therapy), education (student-centered learning), organizations, and other group settings.[1] For his professional work he received the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Psychology from the APA in 1972. In a study by Steven J. Haggbloom and colleagues using six criteria such as citations and recognition, Rogers was found to be the sixth most eminent psychologist of the 20th century and second, among clinicians,[2] only to Sigmund Freud.[3] Based on a 1982 survey of 422 respondents of U.S. and Canadian psychologists, he was considered the most influential psychotherapist in history (Freud ranked third).[4]

Person-centered therapy, also known as person-centered psychotherapy, person-centered counseling, client-centered therapy and Rogerian psychotherapy, is a form of psychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers and colleagues beginning in the 1940s[1] and extending into the 1980s.[2] Person-centered therapy seeks to facilitate a client's actualizing tendency, "an inbuilt proclivity toward growth and fulfillment",[3] via acceptance (unconditional positive regard), therapist congruence (genuineness), and empathic understanding.[4][5]

Person-centered therapy was developed by Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s,[6]: 138  and was brought to public awareness largely through his highly influential book Client-centered Therapy, published in 1951.[7] It has been recognized as one of the major types of psychotherapy (theoretical orientations), along with psychodynamic psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, classical Adlerian psychology, cognitive behavioral therapy, existential therapy, and others.[6]: 3  Its underlying theory arose from the results of empirical research; it was the first theory of therapy to be driven by empirical research,[8] with Rogers at pains to reassure other theorists that "the facts are always friendly".[9] Originally called non-directive therapy, it "offered a viable, coherent alternative to Freudian psychotherapy. ... [Rogers] redefined the therapeutic relationship to be different from the Freudian authoritarian pairing."[10]

Person-centered therapy is often described as a humanistic therapy, but its main principles appear to have been established before those of humanistic psychology.[11] Some have argued that "it does not in fact have much in common with the other established humanistic therapies",[12] but by the mid-1960s Rogers accepted being categorized with other humanistic (or phenomenological-existential) psychologists in contrast to behavioral and psychoanalytic psychologists.[13] Despite the importance of the self to person-centered theory, the theory is fundamentally organismic and holistic in nature,[14][15] with the individual's unique self-concept at the center of the unique "sum total of the biochemical, physiological, perceptual, cognitive, emotional and interpersonal behavioural subsystems constituting the person".[16]

Nonviolent Communication (NVC) is an approach to communication based on the principles of nonviolence. It is not an attempt to end disagreements, but rather a method that aims to increase empathy and improve the quality of life of those who utilize the method and the people around them. Nonviolent Communication evolved from concepts used in person-centered therapy, and was developed by clinical psychologist Marshall Rosenberg beginning in the 1960s and 1970s. There are a large number of workshops and clinical materials about NVC, including Rosenberg's book Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life.[1][2][3][4] Marshall Rosenberg also taught NVC in a number of video lectures available online; the workshop recorded in San Francisco is the most well-known.[5]

NVC is a communication tool with the goal of first creating empathy in the conversation. The idea is that once there is empathy between the parties in the conversation, it will be much easier to talk about a solution which satisfies all parties' fundamental needs.[6] The goal is interpersonal harmony and obtaining knowledge for future cooperation.[7] Notable concepts include rejecting coercive forms of discourse, gathering facts through observing without evaluating, genuinely and concretely expressing feelings and needs, and formulating effective and empathetic requests. Nonviolent Communication is used as a clinical psychotherapy modality and it is also offered in workshops for the general public, particularly with regards to seeking harmony in relationships and at workplaces.

Marshall Bertram Rosenberg (October 6, 1934 – February 7, 2015) was an American psychologist, mediator, author and teacher. Starting in the early 1960s, he developed nonviolent communication, a process for supporting partnership and resolving conflict within people, relationships, and society. He worked worldwide as a peacemaker, and in 1984 founded the Center for Nonviolent Communication, an international nonprofit organization for which he served as Director of Educational Services.[1][2]

Gestalt therapy is a form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility and focuses on the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist–client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation. It was developed by Fritz Perls, Laura Perls and Paul Goodman in the 1940s and 1950s, and was first described in the 1951 book Gestalt Therapy.[1]

Edwin Nevis, co-founder of the Gestalt Institute of Cleveland, founder of the Gestalt International Study Center, and faculty member at the MIT Sloan School of Management, described Gestalt therapy as "a conceptual and methodological base from which helping professionals can craft their practice".[2] In the same volume, Joel Latner stated that Gestalt therapy is built upon two central ideas:

  1. that the most helpful focus of psychotherapy is the experiential present moment, and that everyone is caught in webs of relationships;

  2. thus, it is only possible to know ourselves against the background of our relationships to others.[3]

The historical development of Gestalt therapy (described below) discloses the influences that generated these two ideas. Expanded, they support the four chief theoretical constructs (explained in the theory and practice section) that comprise Gestalt theory, and that guide the practice and application of Gestalt therapy.

Gestalt therapy was forged from various influences upon the lives of its founders during the times in which they lived, including the new physics, Eastern religion, existential phenomenology, Gestalt psychology, psychoanalysis, experimental theatre, systems theory, and field theory.[4] Gestalt therapy rose from its beginnings in the middle of the 20th century to rapid and widespread popularity during the decade of the 1960s and early 1970s. During the 1970s and 80s Gestalt therapy training centers spread globally; but they were, for the most part, not aligned with formal academic settings. As the cognitive revolution eclipsed Gestalt theory in psychology, many came to believe Gestalt was an anachronism. Because Gestalt therapists disdained the positivism underlying what they perceived to be the concern of research, they largely ignored the need to use research to further develop Gestalt theory and Gestalt therapy practice (with a few exceptions like Les Greenberg; see the interview "Validating Gestalt"[5]). However, the new century has seen a sea change in attitudes toward research and Gestalt practice. In March 2020, Vikram Kolmannskog became the world's first Professor of Gestalt Therapy at the Norwegian Gestalt Institute, where he has been teaching and researching since 2015.[6]

Gestalt therapy is not identical to Gestalt psychology, but Gestalt psychology influenced the development of Gestalt therapy to a large extent.[7]

Gestalt therapy focuses on process (what is actually happening) over content (what is being talked about).[8] The emphasis is on what is being done, thought, and felt at the present moment (the phenomenality of both client and therapist), rather than on what was, might be, could be, or should have been. Gestalt therapy is a method of awareness practice (also called "mindfulness" in other clinical domains), by which perceiving, feeling, and acting are understood to be conducive to interpreting, explaining, and conceptualizing (the hermeneutics of experience).[9] This distinction between direct experience versus indirect or secondary interpretation is developed in the process of therapy. The client learns to become aware of what they are doing and that triggers the ability to risk a shift or change.[10]

Friedrich Salomon Perls (July 8, 1893 – March 14, 1970), better known as Fritz Perls, was a German-born psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and psychotherapist. Perls coined the term "Gestalt therapy" to identify the form of psychotherapy that he developed with his wife, Laura Perls, in the 1940s and 1950s. Perls became associated with the Esalen Institute in 1964 and lived there until 1969.

The core of the Gestalt therapy process is enhanced awareness of sensation, perception, bodily feelings, emotion, and behavior, in the present moment. Relationship is emphasized, along with contact between the self, its environment, and the other.

The psychological and physiological effects of meditation have been studied. In recent years, studies of meditation have increasingly involved the use of modern instruments, such as fMRI and EEG, which are able to observe brain physiology and neural activity in living subjects, either during the act of meditation itself or before and after meditation. Correlations can thus be established between meditative practices and brain structure or function.[1]

Since the 1950s hundreds of studies on meditation have been conducted, but many of the early studies were flawed and thus yielded unreliable results.[2][3] Contemporary studies have attempted to address many of these flaws with the hope of guiding current research into a more fruitful path.[4] In 2013, researchers found moderate evidence that meditation can reduce anxiety, depression, and pain, but no evidence that it is more effective than active treatments such as drugs or exercise.[5] Another major review article also cautioned about possible misinformation and misinterpretation of data related to the subject.[6][7]

Meditation is a practice of mindfulness, or focusing the mind on a particular object, thought, or activity to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state.[1][2][3][4][web 1][web 2]

Meditation is practiced in numerous religious traditions. The earliest records of meditation (dhyana) are found in the Upanishads, and meditation plays an important role in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.[5] Since the 19th century, Asian meditative techniques have spread to other cultures where they have also found application in non-spiritual contexts, such as business and health.[6]

Meditation may significantly reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and pain,[7] and enhance peace, perception,[8] self-concept, and well-being.[9][10][11] Research is ongoing to better understand the effects of meditation on health (psychological, neurological, and cardiovascular) and oth

Mindfulness is the cognitive skill, usually developed through meditation, of sustaining meta-awareness of the contents of one's own mind in the present moment.[1][2][note 1][3][web 1][2][4][5]

Mindfulness derives from sati, a significant element of Hindu and Buddhist traditions,[6][7] and is based on Zen, Vipassanā, and Tibetan meditation techniques.[8][9][note 2] Though definitions and techniques of mindfulness are wide-ranging,[15] Buddhist traditions describe what constitutes mindfulness such as how past, present and future moments arise and cease as momentary sense impressions and mental phenomena.[6][16][web 2] Individuals who have contributed to the popularity of mindfulness in the modern Western context include Thích Nhất Hạnh, Joseph Goldstein, Herbert Benson, Jon Kabat-Zinn, and Richard J. Davidson.[17][18]

Clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people experiencing a variety of psychological conditions.[18] Mindfulness practice has been employed to reduce depression,[19][20][21][22][23] stress,[20][24][23] anxiety,[19][20][25][23] and in the treatment of drug addiction.[26][27][28] Programs based on mindfulness models have been adopted within schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans' centers, and other environments,[29][30] and mindfulness programs have been applied for additional outcomes such as for healthy aging, weight management, athletic performance,[31] helping children with special needs, and as an intervention during early pregnancy.

Clinical studies have documented both physical- and mental-health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children.[32][33][34] Studies have shown a positive relationship between trait mindfulness (which can be cultivated through the practice of mindfulness-based interventions) and psychological health.[35][36] The practice of mindfulness appears to provide therapeutic benefits to people with psychiatric disorders,[37][38][39] including moderate benefits to those with psychosis.[40][41][42] Studies also indicate that rumination and worry contribute to a variety of mental disorders,[43][44] and that mindfulness-based interventions can enhance trait mindfulness[45] and reduce both rumination and worry.[44][46][47] Further, the practice of mindfulness may be a preventive strategy to halt the development of mental-health problems.[48][49][50]

Evidence suggests that engaging in mindfulness meditation may influence physical health.[51] For example, the psychological habit of repeatedly dwelling on stressful thoughts appears to intensify the physiological effects of the stressor (as a result of the continual activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis) with the potential to lead to physical health related clinical manifestations.[52][53][54] Studies indicate that mindfulness meditation, which brings about reductions in rumination, may alter these biological clinical pathways.[52][44][55] Further, research indicates that mindfulness may favorably influence the immune system[56] as well as inflammation,[3][57][58] which can consequently impact physical health, especially considering that inflammation has been linked to the development of several chronic health conditions.[59][60] Other studies support these findings.[61][62][55]er areas.

Effect of Mindfulness Meditation. A previous study commissioned by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality found that meditation interventions reduce multiple negative dimensions of psychological stress.[5] Other systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that mindfulness meditation has several mental health benefits such as bringing about reductions in depression symptoms,[8][9][10] improvements in mood,[11] stress-resilience[11] and attentional control.[11] Mindfulness interventions also appear to be a promising intervention for managing depression in youth.[12][13] Mindfulness meditation is useful for managing stress,[9][14][15][11] anxiety[8][9][15] and also appears to be effective in treating substance use disorders.[16][17][18] A recent meta analysis by Hilton et al. (2016) including 30 randomized controlled trials found high quality evidence for improvement in depressive symptoms.[19] Other review studies have shown that mindfulness meditation can enhance the psychological functioning of breast cancer survivors,[9] is effective for people with eating disorders[20][21] and may also be effective in treating psychosis.[22][23][24]

Studies have also shown that rumination and worry contribute to mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety,[25] and mindfulness-based interventions are effective in the reduction of worry.[25][26]

Some studies suggest that mindfulness meditation contributes to a more coherent and healthy sense of self and identity, when considering aspects such as sense of responsibility, authenticity, compassion, self-acceptance and character.[27][28]

Milton Hyland Erickson (5 December 1901 – 25 March 1980) was an American psychiatrist and psychologist specializing in medical hypnosis and family therapy. He was the founding president of the American Society for Clinical Hypnosis. He is noted for his approach to the unconscious mind as creative and solution-generating. He is also noted for influencing brief therapy, strategic family therapy, family systems therapy, solution focused brief therapy, and neuro-linguistic programming.[1]

Milton Erickson dedicated his professional career to the advancement of the use of hypnosis in the context of medicine. He was committed to scientific methodology and a staunch advocate of the regulated professional training for practitioners. The investigations of Erickson in the first half of the 20th century were particularly influential on the second half. Erickson's clinical innovations on the practice of hypnosis are credited with inspiring its renaissance and arousing a new generation of practitioners.[10]

Erickson's view of the unconscious mind was distinctly different from that of Freud whose ideas dominated the context of the times. Zeig quotes Erickson as describing "The unconscious mind is made up of all your learnings over a lifetime, many of which you have forgotten, but which serve you in your automatic functioning".[11] Andre Weitzenhoffer points out: "The Ericksonian 'unconscious' lacks in particular the hostile and aggressive aspects so characteristic of Freud's system".[12]

Erickson relied on a supposition of an active, significant, unconscious.[13] It was Erickson's perspective that hypnosis provided a tool with which to communicate with the unconscious mind and access the reservoir of resources held within. He describes in a 1944 article on unconscious mental activity, "Since hypnosis can be induced by trance and manifests the unwarranted assumption is made that whatever develops from hypnosis must be completely a result of suggestion, and primarily an expression of it". In the same publication Erickson repeatedly comments about the autonomy of the unconscious mind and its capacity to solve problems.[14]

The essential element of Erickson's jokes was not hostility, but surprise.[15] It was not uncommon for him to slip indirect suggestions into a myriad of situations. He also included humor in his books, papers, lectures and seminars.[16]

Hypnotherapy is a type of mind–body intervention in which hypnosis is used to create a state of focused attention and increased suggestibility in the treatment of a medical or psychological disorder or concern.[1]

The United States Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) describes the job of the hypnotherapist:

"Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior patterns: Consults with client to determine nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic state by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degree of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client, using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client's problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning."[2]

The form of hypnotherapy practiced by most Victorian hypnotists, including James Braid and Hippolyte Bernheim, mainly employed direct suggestion of symptom removal, with some use of therapeutic relaxation and occasionally aversion to alcohol, drugs, etc.[3]

In the 1950s, Milton H. Erickson developed a radically different approach to hypnotism, which has subsequently become known as "Ericksonian hypnotherapy" or "Neo-Ericksonian hypnotherapy." Based on his belief that dysfunctional behaviors were defined by social tension, Erickson coopted the subject's behavior to establish rapport, a strategy he termed "utilization." Once rapport was established, he made use of an informal conversational approach to direct awareness. His methods included complex language patterns and client-specific therapeutic strategies (reflecting the nature of utilization). He claimed to have developed ways to suggest behavior changes during apparently ordinary conversation.[4]

This divergence from tradition led some, including Andre Weitzenhoffer, to dispute whether Erickson was right to label his approach "hypnosis" at all.[5] Erickson's foundational paper, however, considers hypnosis as a mental state in which specific types of "work" may be done, rather than a technique of induction.[6]

The founders of neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), a method somewhat similar in some regards to some versions of hypnotherapy, claimed that they had modelled the work of Erickson extensively and assimilated it into their approach.[7][8] Weitzenhoffer disputed whether NLP bears any genuine resemblance to Erickson's work.[5]

Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention (the selective attention/selective inattention hypothesis, SASI),[2] reduced peripheral awareness, and an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion.[3]

There are competing theories explaining hypnosis and related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness.[4][5] In contrast, non-state theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect,[6][7] a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist[8] or a form of imaginative role enactment.[9][10][11]

During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened focus and concentration[12] and an increased response to suggestions.[13] Hypnosis usually begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestions. The use of hypnosis for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis," a form of mentalism.

Hypnosis-based therapies for the management of irritable bowel syndrome and menopause are supported by evidence.[14][15][16][17] Use of hypnosis for treatment of other problems has produced mixed results, such as with smoking cessation.[18][19][20] The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial within the scientific mainstream. Research indicates that hypnotising an individual may aid the formation of false memories,[21][22] and that hypnosis "does not help people recall events more accurately".[23]

Holistic education is a movement in education that seeks to engage all aspects of the learner, including mind, body, and spirit.[1] Its philosophy, which is also identified as holistic learning theory,[2] is based on the premise that each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to their local community, to the natural world, and to humanitarian values such as compassion and peace.

Holistic education aims to call forth from people an intrinsic reverence for life and a passionate love of learning,[3] gives attention to experiential learning, and places significance on "relationships and primary human values within the learning environment".[4] The term "holistic education" is most often used to refer to the more democratic and humanistic types of alternative education.

Carl Gustav Jung (/jʊŋ/ YUUNG;[1][2] German: [kaʁl ˈjʊŋ]; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

Jung's work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy, psychology,[3] and religious studies. He worked as a research scientist at the Burghölzli psychiatric hospital, in Zurich, under Eugen Bleuler. Jung established himself as an influential mind, developing a friendship with Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, conducting a lengthy correspondence, paramount to their joint vision of human psychology. Jung is widely regarded as one of the most influential psychologists in history.[4][5]

In analytical psychology, the shadow (also known as ego-dystonic complex, repressed id, shadow aspect, or shadow archetype) is an unconscious aspect of the personality that does not correspond with the ego ideal, leading the ego to resist and project the shadow, leading to a conflict with it. In short, the shadow is the self's emotional blind spot - the part the ego does not want to acknowledge - projected as archetypesor, in a metaphorical sense-image complexes, personified within the collective unconscious; e.g., trickster.[1][2][3][4][5]

The shadow is conceptually the blind spot of the psyche;[7] the repression of one's id, while maladaptive, prevents shadow integration, the union of id and ego.[8][9] While they are regarded as differing on their theories of the function of repression of id in civilization, Freud and Jung coalesced at Platonism, wherein id rejects the nomos.[10] Persona is contrasted against the shadow.[11] Jung regarded the shadow as unconscious—id and biography—suppressed under the superego's ego-ideal, the way the superego wants to be.[12] The shadow is projected onto one's social environment as cognitive distortions.[13] However, the shadow can also be regarded as "roughly equivalent to the whole of the Freudian unconscious",[14] and Jung himself asserted that "the result of the Freudian method of elucidation is a minute elaboration of man's shadow side unexampled in any previous age".[15]: 63 

The principle of individuation, or principium individuationis,[1] describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinct from other things.[2]

The concept appears in numerous fields and is encountered in works of Leibniz, Carl Jung, Gunther Anders, Gilbert Simondon, Bernard Stiegler, Friedrich Nietzsche, Arthur Schopenhauer, David Bohm, Henri Bergson, Gilles Deleuze,[3] and Manuel DeLanda.

In analytical psychology, individuation is the process by which the individual self develops out of an undifferentiated unconscious – seen as a developmental psychic process during which innate elements of personality, the components of the immature psyche, and the experiences of the person's life become, if the process is more or less successful, integrated over time into a well-functioning whole.[5] Other psychoanalytic theorists describe it as the stage where an individual transcends group attachment and narcissistic self-absorption.[6]

According to Jungian psychology, individuation (German: Individuation) is a process of psychological integration. "In general, it is the process by which individual beings are formed and differentiated [from other human beings]; in particular, it is the development of the psychological individual as a being distinct from the general, collective psychology."[20]

Individuation is a process of transformation whereby the personal and collective unconscious are brought into consciousness (e.g., by means of dreams, active imagination, or free association) to be assimilated into the whole personality. It is a completely natural process that is necessary for the integration of the psyche.[21] Individuation has a holistic healing effect on the person, both mentally and physically.[21]

Jungian archetypes are a concept from psychology that refers to a universal, inherited idea, pattern of thought, or image that is present in the collective unconscious of all human beings. The psychic counterpart of instinct, archetypes are thought to be the basis of many of the common themes and symbols that appear in stories, myths, and dreams across different cultures and societies. Some examples of archetypes include those of the mother, the child, the trickster, and the flood, among others. The concept of the collective unconscious was first proposed by Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst.

According to Jung, archetypes are innate patterns of thought and behavior that strive for realization within an individual's environment. This process of actualization influences the degree of individuation, or the development of the individual's unique identity. For instance, the presence of a maternal figure who closely matches the child's idealized concept of a mother can evoke innate expectations and activate the mother archetype in the child's mind. This archetype is incorporated into the child's personal unconscious as a "mother complex," which is a functional unit of the personal unconscious that is analogous to an archetype in the collective unconscious.

Jordan Bernt Peterson (born 12 June 1962) is a Canadian psychologist, author, and media commentator.[4] Often described as conservative, he began to receive widespread attention in the late 2010s for his views on cultural and political issues.[5][6][7][8] Peterson has described himself as a classic British liberal[9][10][11] and a traditionalist.[12]

Peterson was born and raised in Alberta, and obtained his bachelor's degrees in political science and psychology from the University of Alberta and a PhD in clinical psychology from McGill University. After researching and teaching at Harvard University, he returned to Canada in 1998 and became a professor of psychology at the University of Toronto. In 1999, he published his first book, Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief, which became the basis for many of his subsequent lectures. The book combined psychology, mythology, religion, literature, philosophy and neuroscience to analyze systems of belief and meaning.

Maps of Meaning (1999), Main article: Maps of Meaning

In 1999, Routledge published Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief, in which Peterson describes a comprehensive theory about how people construct meaning, form beliefs, and make narratives. The book, which took Peterson 13 years to complete, draws concepts from various fields including mythology, religion, literature, philosophy, and psychology, in accordance to the modern scientific understanding of how the brain functions.[20][53][54][55][56]

According to Peterson, his main goal was to examine why individuals and groups alike participate in social conflict, exploring the reasoning and motivation individuals take to support their belief systems (i.e. ideological identification)[20] that eventually result in killing and pathological atrocities such as the Gulag, the Auschwitz concentration camp, and the Rwandan genocide.[20][57][56] Influenced by Jung's archetypal view of the collective unconscious in the book,[29] Peterson says that an "analysis of the world's religious ideas might allow us to describe our essential morality and eventually develop a universal system of morality."[56]

In 2004, a 13-part TV miniseries based on Peterson's book aired on TVOntario.[15][24][58]

12 Rules for Life (2018), Main article: 12 Rules for Life

In January 2018, Penguin Random House published Peterson's second book, 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos, in which self-help principles are discussed in a more accessible style than in his previous published work.[29][42][59] The book topped best-selling lists in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the US, and the United Kingdom.[60][61][62][63]

To promote the book, Peterson embarked on a world tour.[64]

Beyond Order (2021), Main article: Beyond Order

Peterson's third book, Beyond Order: 12 More Rules for Life, was released on 2 March 2021.[65] On 23 November 2020, his publisher Penguin Random House Canada (PRH Canada) held an internal town hall where many employees criticized the decision to publish the book.[66]

Social media, Jordan B PetersonJordan B Peterson Clips

[69]Associated actsJoe Rogan, Bret Weinstein, Dave Rubin, Rebel Wisdom, Akira the Don, Jocko Willink, Holding Space Films, Lex Fridman

In 2013, Peterson registered a YouTube channel named JordanPetersonVideos,[70] and immediately began uploading recordings of lectures and interviews. The earliest dated recordings are from Harvard lectures in 1996. By the end of 2013, content on the channel included the lectures from Harvard, some interviews, and additional special lectures on two defining topics: "Tragedy vs Evil" and "Psychology as a career".[citation needed]

From 2014, uploads include recordings from two of his classes at University of Toronto ("Personality and Its Transformations" and "Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief"),[71] special lectures ("Potential" for TEDx, "Death of the Oceans"), interviews, experiments in Q&A format, and video essays.[citation needed]

In March 2016, after three years of basic uploading of course videos, Peterson announced an interest to clean existing content and improve future content,[72] including a new experiment in crowdfunding through Patreon.[72][better source needed]

The channel gathered more than 1.8 million subscribers and his videos received more than 65 million views as of August 2018.[41][73] By January 2021, subscribers on JordanPetersonVideos numbered at 3.4 million and total views reached over 200 million.[70][better source needed]

Buddhism (/ˈbʊdɪzəm/ BUUD-ih-zəm, US also /ˈbuːd-/ BOOD-),[1][2][3] also known as Buddha Dharma, and Dharmavinaya (transl. "doctrines and disciplines"), is an Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on teachings attributed to the Buddha.[4] It originated in the eastern Gangetic plain as a śramaṇa–movement in the 5th century BCE, and gradually spread throughout much of Asia via the Silk Road. It is the world's fourth-largest religion,[5][6] with over 520 million followers (Buddhists) who comprise seven percent of the global population.[7][8][9]

The Buddha's central teachings emphasize the aim of attaining liberation from dukkha (often translated as "suffering" or "unease"[note 1]), the source of which is said to be attachment or clinging.[14] He endorsed the Middle Way, a path of development that avoids both extreme asceticism and hedonism. A summary of this path is expressed in the Noble Eightfold Path, a cultivation of the mind which is said to lead to awakening and full liberation through observance of Buddhist ethics and meditation. Other widely observed practices include: monasticism; "taking refuge" in the Three Jewels: the Buddha, the dharma, and the saṅgha; and the cultivation of perfections (pāramitā).[15]

Buddhist schools vary in their interpretation of the paths to liberation (mārga) as well as the relative importance and 'canonicity' assigned to various Buddhist texts, and their specific teachings and practices.[16][17] Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravāda (lit. 'School of the Elders') and Mahāyāna (lit. 'Great Vehicle'). The Theravada tradition emphasizes the attainment of nirvāṇa (lit. 'extinguishing') as a means of transcending the individual self and ending the cycle of death and rebirth (saṃsāra),[18][19][20] while the Mahayana tradition emphasizes the Bodhisattva-ideal, in which one works for the liberation of all beings. The Buddhist canon is vast, with many different textual collections in different languages (such as Sanskrit, Pali, Tibetan, and Chinese).[21]

The Theravāda branch has a widespread following in Sri Lanka as well as in Southeast Asia, namely Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia. The Mahāyāna branch—which includes the traditions of Zen, Pure Land, Nichiren, Tiantai, Tendai, and Shingon—is predominantly practised in Nepal, Bhutan, China, Malaysia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. Additionally, Vajrayāna (lit. 'Indestructible Vehicle'), a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or tradition within Mahāyāna.[22] Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayāna teachings of eighth-century India, is practised in the Himalayan states as well as in Mongolia[23] and Russian Kalmykia.[24] Historically, until the early 2nd millennium, Buddhism was widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent;[25][26][27] it also had a foothold to some extent elsewhere in Asia, namely Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan.[28]

Tai chi is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for self-defense and health. Known for its slow, intentional movements, tai chi has practitioners worldwide and is particularly popular as a form of gentle exercise and moving meditation, with benefits to mental and physical health.

Many forms of tai chi are practiced, both traditional and modern. While the precise origins are not known, the earliest documented practice is from Chen Village, Henan. Most modern styles trace their development to the five traditional schools: Chen, Yang, Wu (Hao), Wu, and Sun. Practitioners such as Yang Chengfu and Sun Lutang in the early 20th century promoted the art for its health benefits.[1] Tai chi was included in the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2020.[2]

The name "tai chi", the most common English spelling, is not a standard romanization of the Chinese name for the art (simplified Chinese: 太极拳; traditional Chinese: 太極拳; lit. 'Taiji boxing'). The Chinese name was first commonly written in English using the Wade–Giles system as "tʻai chi chʻüan". But English speakers abbreviated it to "tʻai chi" and dropped the mark of aspiration. Since the late twentieth century, pinyin has replaced Wade–Giles as the most popular system for romanizing Chinese. In pinyin, tai chi is spelled taijiquan (tàijíquán).[3][4] In English, tai chi is sometimes referred to as "shadowboxing".[5]

Taoism or Daoism[a] (/ˈtaʊɪzəm/ or /ˈdaʊɪzəm/ ) is a diverse tradition indigenous to China, variously characterized as both a philosophy and a religion. Taoism emphasizes living in harmony with what is known as the Tao—generally understood as being the impersonal, enigmatic process of transformation ultimately underlying reality.[2][3] The Tao is represented in Chinese by the character 道 (pinyin: dào; Wade–Giles: tao4), which has several related meanings; possible English translations for it include 'way', 'road', and 'technique'. Symbols such as the bagua and taijitu are often employed to illustrate various aspects of the Tao, which can never be sufficiently described with words and metaphors alone. Taoist thought has informed the development of various practices and rituals within the Taoist tradition and beyond, including forms of meditation, astrology, qigong, feng shui, and internal alchemy. A common goal of Taoist practice is self-cultivation resulting in a deeper appreciation of the Tao, and thus a more harmonious existence.

Different schools present different formulations of Taoist ethics, but there is generally an emphasis on virtues such as effortless action, naturalness or spontaneity, simplicity, and the three treasures of compassion, frugality, and humility. Due to the terse quality of Classical Chinese as well as the abstract nature of the ideas themselves, many of these concepts defy simple definitions: Taoist terms have been translated into English in numerous different ways, occasionally resulting in divergent interpretations of Taoist ideas.

The core of Taoist thought crystallized during the early Warring States period circa the 4th and 5th centuries. The two works widely regarded as the principal expressions of Taoist philosophy, the epigrammatic Tao Te Ching and the anecdotal Zhuangzi, were both partly composed during this time. They form the foundation of a large corpus of Taoist writings accrued over the following centuries; in the 5th century CE much of it began to be assembled by Taoist monks into the Daozang canon. Early Taoism drew upon a diverse set of influences, including the Shang and Zhou state religions, Naturalism, Mohism, Confucianism, the Legalist theories of figures like Shen Buhai and Han Fei, as well as the Book of Changes and Spring and Autumn Annals.[4][5][6] Later, when Buddhism was introduced to China, the two systems began deeply influencing one another, with long-running discourses shared between Taoists and Buddhists; the distinct Zen tradition within Mahayana Buddhism that emerged during the Tang dynasty keenly incorporates many ideas from Taoism.


More Ressources + Studies

List of forms of alternative medicine